So you have seen the above image by now, right?
Let me explain the above image in short.
SbCl5 lewis structure has an Antimony atom (Sb) at the center which is surrounded by five Chlorine atoms (Cl). There are 5 single bonds between the Antimony atom (Sb) and each Chlorine atom (Cl).
If you haven’t understood anything from the above image of SbCl5 lewis structure, then just stick with me and you will get the detailed step by step explanation on drawing a lewis structure of SbCl5.
So let’s move to the steps of drawing the lewis structure of SbCl5.
Steps of drawing SbCl5 lewis structure
Step 1: Find the total valence electrons in SbCl5 molecule
In order to find the total valence electrons in SbCl5 molecule, first of all you should know the valence electrons present in antimony atom as well as chlorine atom.
(Valence electrons are the electrons that are present in the outermost orbit of any atom.)
Here, I’ll tell you how you can easily find the valence electrons of antimony as well as chlorine using a periodic table.
Total valence electrons in SbCl5 molecule
→ Valence electrons given by antimony atom:
Antimony is group 15 element on the periodic table.  Hence the valence electrons present in antimony is 5.
You can see the 5 valence electrons present in the antimony atom as shown in the above image.
→ Valence electrons given by chlorine atom:
Chlorine is group 17 element on the periodic table.  Hence the valence electrons present in chlorine is 7.
You can see the 7 valence electrons present in the chlorine atom as shown in the above image.
Total valence electrons in SbCl5 molecule = valence electrons given by 1 antimony atom + valence electrons given by 5 chlorine atoms = 5 + 7(5) = 40.
Step 2: Select the central atom
For selecting the center atom, you have to remember that the atom which is less electronegative remains at the center.
Now here the given molecule is SbCl5 and it contains antimony atom (Sb) and chlorine atoms (Cl).
You can see the electronegativity values of antimony atom (Sb) and chlorine atom (Cl) in the above periodic table.
If we compare the electronegativity values of antimony (Sb) and chlorine (Cl) then the antimony atom is less electronegative.
So here the antimony atom (Sb) is the center atom and the chlorine atoms (Cl) are the outside atoms.
Step 3: Connect each atoms by putting an electron pair between them
Now in the SbCl5 molecule, you have to put the electron pairs between the antimony atom (Sb) and chlorine atoms (Cl).
This indicates that the antimony (Sb) and chlorine (Cl) are chemically bonded with each other in a SbCl5 molecule.
Step 4: Make the outer atoms stable
Now in this step, you have to check the stability of the outer atoms.
Here in the sketch of SbCl5 molecule, you can see that the outer atoms are chlorine atoms.
These outer chlorine atoms are forming an octet and hence they are stable.
Also, in step 1 we have calculated the total number of valence electrons present in the SbCl5 molecule.
The SbCl5 molecule has a total 40 valence electrons and all these valence electrons are used in the above sketch of SbCl5.
Hence there are no remaining electron pairs to be kept on the central atom.
So now let’s proceed to the next step.
Step 5: Check the stability of lewis structure
Now you have come to the final step in which you have to check the stability of lewis structure of SbCl5.
The stability of lewis structure can be checked by using a concept of formal charge.
In short, now you have to find the formal charge on antimony (Sb) atom as well as chlorine (Cl) atoms present in the SbCl5 molecule.
For calculating the formal charge, you have to use the following formula;
Formal charge = Valence electrons – (Bonding electrons)/2 – Nonbonding electrons
For Antimony (Sb) atom:
Valence electrons = 5 (because antimony is in group 15)
Bonding electrons = 10
Nonbonding electrons = 0
For Chlorine (Cl) atom:
Valence electrons = 7 (because chlorine is in group 17)
Bonding electrons = 2
Nonbonding electrons = 6
From the above calculations of formal charge, you can see that the antimony (Sb) atom as well as chlorine (Cl) atom has a “zero” formal charge.
This indicates that the above lewis structure of SbCl5 is stable and there is no further change in the above structure of SbCl5.
In the above lewis dot structure of SbCl5, you can also represent each bonding electron pair (:) as a single bond (|). By doing so, you will get the following lewis structure of SbCl5.
I hope you have completely understood all the above steps.
For more practice and better understanding, you can try other lewis structures listed below.
Try (or at least See) these lewis structures for better understanding:
|CH3SH Lewis Structure
|KrF4 Lewis Structure
|TeCl4 Lewis Structure
|AsO4 3- Lewis Structure
|XeF6 Lewis Structure
|N2O3 Lewis Structure
Jay is an educator and has helped more than 100,000 students in their studies by providing simple and easy explanations on different science-related topics. He is a founder of Pediabay and is passionate about helping students through his easily digestible explanations.
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